Excess sugar is harmful to our health. It may cause our blood glucose levels to spike. It can impair immune function and increase the probability of obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Glucose or sugar levels in our blood can have a direct impact on our well-being. High blood sugar symptoms are often considered detrimental to health.

Diabetes medication is used to help lower blood sugar levels in individuals with diabetes. There are several different types of diabetes medication, including insulin, sulfonylureas, DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists, SGLT2 inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, Jardiance, Trulicty, and Januvia. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body use glucose as energy and is typically given to individuals with type 1 diabetes or severe type 2 diabetes. Sulfonylureas, DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists, SGLT2 inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones are all oral medications that work by increasing insulin production or sensitivity, reducing glucose absorption, or slowing down digestion. The choice of medication will depend on the individual’s specific needs and the type of diabetes. It’s essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to manage diabetes and find the best medication regimen.

Sugar or glucose is naturally present in the blood of humans. A sufficient amount of blood sugar provides energy to the body’s cells and organs. Some blood sugar is produced by the liver and muscles, but the majority is obtained from carbohydrate-containing foods and beverages.

To keep blood sugar levels regular, the body requires insulin. Insulin is a hormone that allows the body’s cells to take in and store glucose. Blood sugar normal levels rise when there is insufficient insulin, or it does not function correctly. High blood sugar levels can cause health issues.

High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) is a condition in which the blood sugar normal level in the bloodstream is abnormally high. It mostly affects individuals with diabetes. It is essential to keep a check on high blood sugar symptoms for timely management

Diabetes patients might potentially also have dangerously low blood sugar levels. This is known as low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). A blood sugar test can tell you whether your blood sugar level is high and if you have diabetes.

Causes of high blood glucose

High blood sugar levels can be caused by a variety of reasons, all of which can contribute to hyperglycemia in individuals with diabetes. They include diet and physical exercise, sickness, and non-diabetic drugs. Skipping doses or not taking enough insulin or other blood sugar-lowering medicine can also result in hyperglycemia.

The following factors can cause a rise in blood sugar levels in individuals with diabetes:

  • Sickness, such as cold
  • Stress
  • Too much snacking or junk food between meals
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Dehydration
  • Skipping a dosage of medication for diabetes
  • Taking the incorrect dose
  • Over-treating a hypoglycemic episode (low blood sugar)
  • Medications such as steroids

Read more about the blood sugar levels chart by age 40

Symptoms of high blood sugar

Maintaining the blood sugar normal level is essential for good health. When we consume sugar, our body produces an increase in dopamine and serotonin which act as chemical messengers or neurotransmitters. Our pancreas immediately goes into overdrive, creating insulin that absorbs the glucose from the bloodstream and helps control our blood sugar. Once the insulin has served its purpose, our blood sugar goes back to normal, leaving us jittery and exhausted. The cycle repeats as our bodies strive for more carbohydrates to provide a quick burst of energy.

Hyperglycemia (excess sugar in the blood) normally develops gradually over several hours or days. It can be caused by disease, infection, certain drugs, eating too much, not getting enough insulin or exercise, or just plain stress. Diagnosing hyperglycemia might be challenging due to its slow onset. High blood sugar symptoms are as follows:

  • Concentration problems

Brain cells cannot function properly if the body does not receive enough sugar or glucose for energy. This might make it tough to focus leading to concentration problems

  • Drowsiness

Insulin is used by cells to absorb glucose from the blood, which they may then utilise for energy. Diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not create enough insulin or when the body does not utilise insulin adequately. This results in an overabundance of glucose in the blood. When cells do not receive enough glucose, they might become fatigued and feeble causing drowsiness

  • Headaches and Vision impairment

One may find that their eyesight is not quite as sharp as it once was and that visions getting hazy. According to the Joslin Diabetes Centre in Boston, high blood sugar levels can cause enlarged lenses in an individual’s eyes. This alters the curvature of the lens, preventing it from properly focusing and resulting in impaired vision. One may also experience regular headaches and problems at work and driving.

  • Irritability

Studies suggest a link between mood and blood sugar. Blood sugar fluctuations, whether high or low, can cause several symptoms, including mood changes.

  • Extreme thirst and Increased urination

Diabetes symptoms and indicators include excessive thirst and increased urination. When an individual has diabetes, the blood contains an overabundance of glucose, which is a form of sugar. The kidneys must work more to filter and absorb the excess glucose. When the kidneys are unable to keep up, the extra glucose is expelled in the urine, drawing fluids from other tissues with it, leaving a person dehydrated. This is generally followed by thirst. One will urinate more while consuming more drinks to satiate their thirst.

  • Weight reduction and extreme hunger

Many individuals with uncontrolled high blood sugar experience increased hunger, a condition known as polyphagia. And, even if a person eats more, he may lose weight for no obvious reason if his blood sugar levels are too high. Because the body is not obtaining energy from its preferred source, which is glucose, it must resort to muscle and fat for energy. Therefore, the body begins breaking down muscle and fat for energy, resulting in unplanned and undesirable weight loss.

  • Numbness and tingling

High blood sugar levels can induce numbness, burning or tingling sensations in the hands, legs and feet. This is caused to diabetic neuropathy, a diabetes consequence that frequently emerges after many years of high blood sugar levels.

Mild bouts are typically not a reason for worry and can be treated simply or returned to normal on their own. However, hyperglycemia can be harmful if blood sugar levels reach extremely high or remain elevated for an extended length of time.

Impacts of untreated Hyperglycemia & how to deal with it?

Untreated hyperglycemia can lead to long-term issues such as difficulties with the extremities (hands and feet), bone and joint problems, nerve damage, blindness, renal failure and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes therapy seeks to keep blood sugar levels as close to normal as feasible. However, if you have diabetes, you are certain to develop hyperglycemia at some time, no matter how careful you are. It is critical to understand and treat hyperglycemia since it can lead to major health consequences if left unchecked.

Hyperglycemia is one of the most common symptoms of diabetes, and it has increased due to the consumption of unhealthy food and lifestyle habits. Medical professionals are attempting to collaborate more closely with patients, allowing them greater flexibility in selecting interventions that fit their lifestyles. However, noticing and managing the high blood sugar symptoms can play a major role in overcoming the condition and living a normal life.